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P854 Acute Coronary Syndrome

Glossary Angina: Symptoms that occur when the heart muscle can’t get enough oxygen-rich blood. Angina often feels like pressure, tightness, or pain in the chest, arm, neck, shoulder, or jaw. Angioplasty: A procedure to unclog blocked arteries, using a thin tube (catheter) with a balloon that inflates to open the artery. Artery: A blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body. Atherosclerosis: Buildup of plaque in arteries, reducing blood flow to the heart, brain, or parts of the body. It occurs when artery walls thicken and lose elasticity. Blood pressure: The amount of force blood exerts against the walls of your blood vessels. Cholesterol: A fatty substance that can build up within artery walls. Some is made by the body; some enters the body through foods you eat. In people with heart disease, the level of cholesterol in the blood is often too high. Coronary arteries: The blood vessels that wrap around the heart. These supply the heart muscle with oxygen-rich blood. Coronary artery disease (CAD): A condition that occurs when the arteries that carry blood to the heart are narrowed. Also known as heart disease. Coronary heart disease (CHD): A condition that occurs when the blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle gradually become narrowed or blocked by plaque deposits. Also known as coronary artery disease (CAD). Diabetes: A condition in which your body doesn’t make enough insulin to handle the sugar in the blood, or the body can’t use the insulin it makes, or both. Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): A test that records the way electrical signals move through the heart. Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH): An inherited disorder of high cholesterol that leads to aggressive and premature cardiovascular disease. HDL cholesterol: “Good” cholesterol that helps remove LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and triglycerides from the blood. HDL stands for high-density lipoprotein. Heart disease: A disease in which damage to the heart or the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart keeps the heart from working properly. High blood pressure (hypertension): A disease in which blood pushes with too much force against artery walls as it moves through the arteries. This damages the arteries over time. LDL cholesterol: “Bad” cholesterol that can cause plaque to build up in artery walls. LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein. Lipoprotein profile: A blood test usually done after you’ve fasted for 8-10 hours that tells how much total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides are in your blood. Myocardial infarction (MI): Another term for heart attack. This occurs when the blood supply to the heart is cut off, resulting in permanent damage to the heart muscle. (The myocardium is the thick middle layer of the heart muscle.) Plaque: Fatty deposits that build up inside the arteries and reduce blood flow. Pre-hypertension: Blood pressure that is higher than normal, but not high enough to be called high blood pressure (hypertension). Saturated fat: A type of fat that raises blood cholesterol. It’s mostly found in foods from animal sources, such as butter, lard, fatty cuts of beef, and high-fat dairy. This fat should be limited as much as possible because it’s bad for your heart. Stent: A tiny wire-mesh tube inserted into a blocked artery to help keep it open. Stroke: Occurs when blood flow is cut off by blockage or rupture in a blood vessel supplying the brain. Brain damage results. Trans fat: A type of fat found in french fries and other fast food, snack foods (such as chips and cookies), and some margarines and shortenings. This is the worst fat for your heart and should be avoided. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): A temporary blockage of blood supplying the brain, causing stroke-like symptoms. Triglycerides: A type of fat measured in the blood along with cholesterol. High triglyceride levels are a risk factor for heart attack and stroke. Unsaturated fat: The healthiest type of fat. It’s found in some oils (such as olive, peanut, and canola), nuts, seeds, and fish. Unsaturated fat can be good for your heart in moderate amounts. 31


P854 Acute Coronary Syndrome
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